N-side Project
„Polar GaN substrates with active N-side manufacturing and evaluation of its usefulness in epitaxy”

Programme Description

Applied Research Programme of the National Centre for Research and Development is a horizontal programme aimed at supporting the science sector and the industry sector within the scope of applied research in various scientific fields (programme path A) and industry branches (programme path B).

Project Goal

The goal of this project is to manufacture polar GaN substrates with active N-side and to evaluate its usefulness in epitaxy. Application of N-side is a new approach, since typically substrates have active Ga-side. Epitaxy on N-side, optimized morphology-wise, offers a number of advantages compared to widespread Ga-side epitaxy to name few, obtaining higher hole concentration in p-type layer increases efficiency of optoelectronic devices with N-polarity, and AlGaN layer is a natural energetic barrier facilitating better composition and localization of 2DEG in GaN channel. The abovementioned advantage and other, together with advantages of ammonothermal method (low dislocation density, high crystal curvature radius, scalability) may lead to generation of highly efficient optoelectronic and electronic devices.

Research Team

prof dr hab. Czesław
dr Henryk
dr inż. Grzegorz
dr inż. Marta
mgr Anna
dr Marcin


Project is carried out in collaboration with the following Partners:

Publications and Conference Contributions

Project is realized from 2017 to 2019

Project results have been published in:

  1. F. Krzyżewski, M. A. Załuska-Kotur, H. Turski, M. Sawicka, C. Skierbiszewski, “Miscut dependent surface evolution in the process of N-polar GaN(000-1) growth under N-rich condition”, Journal of Crystal Growth 457 (2017) 38–45, IF=1.74
  2. M. Gladysiewicz, L. Janicki, M. Siekacz, G. Cywinski, C. Skierbiszewski, and R. Kudrawiec, “Theoretical and experimental studies of electric field distribution in N-polar GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures”, Applied Physics Letters 107, 262107 (2016), IF=3.49, M. Gladysiewicz, L. Janicki, M. Siekacz, G. Cywinski, C. Skierbiszewski, and R. Kudrawiec, Erratum: “Theoretical and experimental studies of electric field distribution in N‐ polar GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures" [Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 262107 (2016)]" APL18-ER-06811
  3. C. Chèze, F. Feix, J. Lähnemann, T. Flissikowski, M. Kryśko, P. Wolny, H. Turski, C. Skierbiszewski, and O. Brandt, "Luminescent N-polar (In,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells achieved by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy at temperatures exceeding 700 °C", Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 022102 (2018), IF=3.49
  4. Sergio Fernández-Garrido, Jonas Lähnemann, Christian Hauswald, Maxim Korytov, Martin Albrecht, Caroline Chèze, Czesław Skierbiszewski, and Oliver Brandt, "Comparison of the Luminous Efficiencies of Ga- and N-Polar InxGa1−xN/InyGa1−yN Quantum Wells Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy", Physical Review Applied 6, 034017 (2016), link IF=4.78
  5. Robert Kucharski, Łukasz Janicki, Marcin Zajac, Monika Welna, Marcin Motyka, Czesław Skierbiszewski and Robert Kudrawiec, "Transparency of Semi-Insulating, n-Type, and p-Type Ammonothermal GaN Substrates in the Near-Infrared, Mid-Infrared, and THz Spectral Range" Crystals 7, 187 (2017) doi:10.3390/cryst7070187. IF=2.14
  6. Grzegorz Muziol, Henryk Turski, Marcin Siekacz, Szymon Grzanka, Piotr Perlin, and Czesław Skierbiszewski, "Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide", Applied Physics Express 9, 092103 (2016), IF=2.55
  7. G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, P. Wolny, J. Borysiuk, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, "Aluminum-free nitride laser diodes: waveguiding, electrical and degradation properties", Optics Express 25, 33113 (2017), IF= 3.35
  8. Henryk Turski, Grzegorz Muzioł, Marcin Siekacz, Pawel Wolny, Krzesimir Szkudlarek, Anna Feduniewicz-Zmuda, Krzysztof Dybko, Czeslaw Skierbiszewski, “Growth rate independence of Mg doping in GaN grown by plasma assisted MBE”, Journal of Crystal Growth 482 (2018) 56–60, IF=1.74
  9. C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, "True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy", Applied Physics Express 11, 034103 (2018), IF=2.55
  10. M. Sawicka, P. Wolny, M. Kryśko, H. Turski, K. Szkudlarek, S. Grzanka, C. Skierbiszewski, "Comparative study of semipolar (20-21), nonpolar (10-10) and polar (0001) InGaN multi-quantum well structures grown under N- and In-excess by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy", Journal of Crystal Growth 465 (2017) 43–47, IF=1.74
  11. M. Sawicka, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, M. Kryśko, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Siekacz, P. Wolny, C. Skierbiszewski, "Indium incorporation in semipolar (20-21) and nonpolar (10-10) InGaN grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy", Journal of Crystal Growth 459 (2017) 129–134, IF=1.74

Conference presentations: